Quality of Education

Outcome based education

Dr. Kamran Moosa

Chief Executive | PIQC Institute of Quality

February 22nd 2022 - Pakistan

Empowering Education: Unveiling the Essence of Outcome-Based Learning

Welcome to the realm of education transformation at the World Higher Education Ranking Summit. With "Outcome-Based Education" as the focal point, Kamran Musa from the PIQC Institute of Quality, Pakistan, takes the stage to unravel the nuances of academic quality assurance and learning methodologies.

Embracing the diverse beauty of Lahore, Pakistan, Kamran Musa extends gratitude to the summit's organizers for convening an important discourse on education quality and ranking systems. Amid picturesque glimpses of Lahore, the stage is set for an enlightening exploration.

Diving into the heart of his talk, Kamran Musa elucidates the essence of "Outcome-Based Education." Drawing from the European Higher Education Area's definition, he unveils the intricate web of learning outcomes, strategies, and best practices within academic institutions. Outcome-Based Education is more than a phrase; it's a philosophy that propels students' learning journeys forward.

The tri-dimensional landscape of academic quality comes into focus as Kamran Musa masterfully navigates academic resources, teaching processes, and educational outputs. These dimensions collectively shape the quality framework that underpins institutions worldwide. As he delves deeper, the viewer is introduced to synonymous concepts such as student-centered and skill-centered education.

Mega-meta cognition emerges as a topic often overlooked yet incredibly important. Kamran Musa delves into the concept's crux, highlighting the significance of recognizing, understanding, and controlling one's own thinking and learning processes. This metacognitive prowess empowers students to assess and improve their learning journey, propelling quality to new heights.

Kamran Musa's passion for educating extends to "learning to learn" and "thinking to think." He unveils a missing element in many students' journeys - the ability to introspect and enhance their own learning process. Thought-provoking questions arise - are grades a true reflection of learning quality? Is academic qualification equivalent to competence?

Unveiling the distinction between qualification and competency, Kamran Musa highlights that true education extends beyond knowledge acquisition. While qualification focuses on knowledge, competency hinges on the practical application of that knowledge in the real world. The video encapsulates the essence of Outcome-Based Education - nurturing not just knowledgeable minds, but also capable individuals equipped to thrive in diverse scenarios.

As Kamran Musa's insights continue to flow, the viewer is guided through a narrative that challenges conventional notions of academic success. The video serves as a call to action, inviting educators, students, and stakeholders to embrace Outcome-Based Education's transformative potential.

In a world where grades and qualifications are only a part of the equation, Kamran Musa encourages us to envision a future where learners are not only armed with knowledge but also empowered with competencies that transcend classroom boundaries. As the video comes to a close, the viewer is left with a renewed perspective on education, paving the way for a generation of individuals truly prepared for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

Speakers Info


Dr. Kamran Moosa Professor, Principal Consultant & Corporate Trainer at PIQC Institute of Quality

Dr. Kamran Moosa is a distinguished figure in the realm of quality engineering and management, renowned as the Chief Executive of the PIQC Institute of Quality in Pakistan. With over three decades of dedicated service in this field, he has emerged as an experienced researcher, revered professor, international trainer, and trusted consultant.

Session Script: Outcome based education


Good morning everyone. I'm Kamran Musa from the PIQC Institute of quality Pakistan. First of all, I like to thank all the organizers of this summit, World Higher Education Ranking Summit is perhaps going to be one of the most important summits discussing the issues of basically the quality and ranking system. In the global scenario. I'll be discussing some of the important topics or experiential aspects of this subject of outcome-based education, and academic quality assurance. I live in the city of Lahore, Pakistan, which is a lovely city and is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the country with beautiful people around it. These are some of the glimpses of the city of Lahore.

Outcome-based education

Let me talk and give you the focus of my talk will be on learning outcomes, strategies, and some good practices from the academic institutions. Now the word outcome-based education is a technical word used in academia, and the European higher education area, or EHEA, defines OBE or outcome-based education. As follows outcome-based education focuses on students learning, using learning outcome statements to make explicit what the student is expected to be able to know understand or do providing learning activities that will help the students to reach these outcomes. Assessing the extent to which the student meets these outcomes through the use of explicit assessment criteria.

Academic quality

Now, when we talk of academic quality, there are three dimensions to the institutions. The first one is academic resources. It usually covers the teacher's capital, physical infrastructure, management, infrastructure, financial infrastructure. Teaching and other processes, which include the learning objectives defined by the institutions, the teaching policy, teaching methods, curriculum, assessment, and research activities, and research processes. Now, based on these two aspects, we usually get the educational outputs, which are the performance of the institutions, the learning outcomes gained by the students the results, the competencies, the operational outcomes, knowledge, students learning, skills, and abilities. Usually, when we talk of outcome-based education, some of the synonymous words used for this are student-centered education and skill-centered education as well.


Another important topic or subject, which we commonly ignore in many institutions, is Meta-cognition, a commonly missing subject, which is very important for the students and as well as for the teachers. What is mega-meta cognition? recognition, understanding, and controls of one's thinking and learning processes. That means the students, for the students do recognize, do they understand how they are learning and whether they are learning correctly or not? And if they understand and, they understand the gaps between what the learning processes should be and what they're practicing, are they able to control and improve their learning processes? it refers to higher order thinking, which involves active control by the students over their cognitive processes. In other words, if a student knows and recognizes his or her learning processes, and can improve that process, then it is going to help improve the quality of the learning by the students.

I usually teach this subject, and this is usually my first lecture to the master, or MS level students, where I teach them in the research for the research degrees or the master's level academic programs. Now, learning to learn, or thinking to think, is what I found out is a missing element in the students or most of the students. Now, let me start with a few questions. Number one, we all know that teachers teach and students learn. And as a result, the students get the grades. But the question is, are grades the reflection of the quality of the learning?

This is very important. And in most of the cases or many of the cases, I found, this is not so. Teachers think that they have given sufficient material, and they have delivered their lectures. And the student can capture whatever they want to, and perhaps they should learn what they have been taught. But in reality, sometimes, it's not so. The second is, when the students are at the end of the course or the semester, when we see several students fail or those who do not understand effectively, we usually blame the students for not putting sufficient effort into the learning processes. And if the students, get good grades, we assume we take the credit from their teachers, and we assume that perhaps all the learning which we are supposed to give is taken by the students. Again, there are several issues in this. If the students don't perform well, it is on the students and if it is, if the student performs well, we take the credit to the teachers.

Student grades as the definition of quality

Similarly, another question is, do employers accept student grades as the definition of quality? If they do, then perhaps those who get grades would get a job before those who get this be greater secrets, and they perhaps get more they have their market salary perhaps is more. But again, we found out from the various experiences that this is not so. Those who sometimes get C grades or B grades lead in the market. It's not always true, but most of the time, the grades and the market acceptability are sometimes not matched together. Let me also use the word and clarify the differences between the two words, which often the students do the mistakes is a qualified student also a competent student and this is one of the core questions of the OBE or outcome-based education. Qualification is the process of the acquisition of knowledge.

A student is qualified if he or acquired all the knowledge in the lectures, he or she has taken in the classes. And when they go to the exams, we usually check their knowledge and their abilities based on whatever we have taught on the other side. Competencies are the application of knowledge. After getting the knowledge, it's the student able to apply the knowledge in the real scenario, in the real world or the organization that they are working. So knowledge application and knowledge acquisition are two different things. The knowledge that test, usually the exams in the universities and colleges and also in the schools is based on the topics that we have covered. And the content and the quality of what we have taught them.

That is the acquisition of knowledge. On the side competencies is sometimes with the corporate world in the real world outside of the university is looking for in the correct words. Those who excel in the competencies, usually get better jobs, they are better aligned with the societies in which they're living, and the society appreciates them based on their knowledge and skills. In outcome-based education, our focus will be on the abilities the students can or can do in the real world.

Outcome-based education, focus should on the abilities

Let me give you an example. In mathematics, for example, from basically grade eight and 9,10,11, 12 in the College of schools, and also in the universities, in the subject like mathematics or statistics, we very often used the words or learn what is the difference between the mean, median and mode. Now, for example, if you take the data 1,3,3,5,7,8,9, and we take the mean, which is one 5.14, the median of this would be five and the mode is three. Now, when the statistics teacher is teaching this thing, he or she knows, where the students will apply the median mode or the mean, and to check that, we can go to the corporate world, and we see the reports, the testing reports, the marketing reports, where these are used in 99% of the time we use, we see that people are using or the graduates are using or the professionals are using in this regard only the mean, the median and mode is not being used, why? Are these not applicable in the corporate world in the report, statistical reports or the professionals are not do not know how to apply them in different contexts? For example, if the universities, if two sections of the class, for example, if we measure the average grades of students in two classes and the country, their mean is 70.

Most of the time, people think that these two teachers are the quality of the learning is the same for these two classes. However, if we look at the grid itself, we find out that in class B, two students are absent and they got 01 of the screen got 90 and perhaps four of the students got 100. Now, if we think without knowing the details of the grades, if you think that from just looking at the mean, it looks like the quality of the learning is the same, but when we see the details, and if you look at for example, if the class A all the students got 70% and in class B, four or five got nearly 100, 2 were absent they got zero, the Class B, the learning of the students of Class B is much higher than the learning of class A, but how do we know if we are only using the mean? This is through the use of the median. If you look at the median of the two, then they are different, the median of Class A is 70. And the median of class B is 100.

Are the teachers who are teaching and when they are assessing the students based on just mean and when the deans of the universities they just look at the mean grades of the students. And without looking at the median of the grades, would they be able to understand the phenomena more accurately? Of course not. And this is the issue that when we learned in the schools in the universities, the median and the mode and the mean, we did not learn in many cases, where to apply them and where to use them and as a result, we are not using in many of the cases.

Similarly, from the mathematical point of view, the subjects or the topics, differential equations integration, or trigonometry, we use the words we learn the concepts of sine theta cos theta tan theta. In religion, we study the subject of ethical practices in concepts of the Constitution and civics, geography, chemistry, physics, IT in the science and so forth, are do we assess how much learning outcome has gone, although the students may have got grades, are they able to apply in the real world?
This is a question when we deal with the subject of when we talk within the theme of outcome-based education, which is very important for universities to learn and understand, do exams reflect the student's outcomes? Or the student's quality? and do the exam grades, for example, reflect students learning outcomes? is this performance indicators, the true reflective of qualification of competence of students, this is an important topic. And this is an important aspect of the learning phenomenon. Many of the time, you see when even if the students are getting higher grades, they are not competent enough. And it is our job to make sure that they are not just only qualified, but they are also competent in the concepts and the knowledge that we have given them. If not, because just from the grades, the problem is the students get into something. For example, if the school gets A's and B's in all the subjects that they have gone through the courses, and when the students are appreciated for their good grades by the teachers and by their families and by their friends when the schools are promoted to the next classes or next semesters based on these grades, but the students have not gained the required level of competencies.

Imagine what the students have done with the students, we have put those students in something which is the illusion of competence, and not the competence itself. This illusion is the problem when they go to the interviews in the corporate world. And when they ask the questions related to the competence of the students, the students many times are not able to give the answers just because however, they are confused that they've gone through the whole university for four years, five years. And the problem is they're not able to give the answers, which are basically from the angle of the competencies when the corporate sector asked in the interviews, or the exams. This is because of the phenomena of our assessment or examination systems. Are our exams testing the students inputs, or outputs are our exams measuring the student's acquisition of knowledge? How many students have understood what we have taught? Or is the exam measuring the competencies of the students, and how much they're able to apply the knowledge in the real world? And it's very, sometimes it's very confusing from the teacher's point of view as well.

All the stakeholders, most of the time, are measuring except the corporate world, and the employers, they measure the competencies and knowledge and competencies together. Whereas the schools and the universities measure the qualifications or the knowledge domain on the inputs of the knowledge, which were given to the students during their studies. So, there is a difference between the output and outcome of universities, the output of the universities is the degrees, the qualifications. whereas the outcome of the universities are the competencies, abilities, and personalities of the student, which is ready for the corporate world. So, the output of the universities is the quantity of knowledge that we have given to the students. However, the outcome is the quality of teaching, which is reflected in the abilities which have been gained by the students themselves.

Academic Quality

Academic quality is the learning outcome of courses and programs. It's about meeting the learning standards and the outcome. And academic quality assurance and improvement are about development, monitoring, reporting, and improving the learning outcomes or standards of the student. We have to be students centered, more student-centered, rather than a teacher-centered approach. We have to adopt this and this approach will lead us to the tool to focus on the competencies, abilities, and behavior of the students rather than just the knowledge of the schools.

3 Stages of developing competence

There are three stages of developing the competencies, the input, and the student's lives. Sent to the lectures, they read, they observe things. The process of this knowledge is the critical thinking process, building the logic through various teaching activities, exercises, group discussions, brains, simulations, experiments, visits to the industries, and so forth. This will allow them to process the knowledge that they have learned. And the third one is the result of this process of knowledge, which is creating the ability to use the knowledge-creating the ability to apply the knowledge, and they form new habits or exchange or change existing habits. If that doesn't happen, then perhaps we have failed in building the required knowledge into the personalities of the school, let me share one of the leadership courses taught in one of the universities this institution, which is teaching leadership courses, has considered that leadership is not taught cannot be taught effectively within the classroom. What they do is they take students in the group to various, places and build try to build the leadership skills, within that experiential learning through the practices, you can see the glimpses here, you can see that these people are working, the students are working on different parts of the northern area of the country, they are taken into five to 10 days trip, they practice all their what they have learned with taking into risk all the areas, the instructor is also looking and monitoring them and teaching them, you can see these students are basically at the masters level, students in the evening programs or corporate from the corporate world, and then you can see that how practically this goes is thought leadership is one of the most commonly taught subjects in our management sciences.

However, one of the weakest areas is my weakest area, in the corporate as well as at a national level. We must teach students from the practical experiences as well, you can see here, just let me they are all the assessors are also the teacher is also with them. And they're also going on through various practical examples. To cut the thing short, the inputs of a student, there are so many inputs of the knowledge, and what are the outcomes of the students. If the outcome is no or little understanding of the subject, or the outcome is little or no skills, or little abilities to apply in the real world, or no change your little chain in the behavior of students, then we use the word that the students who graduated are incompetent. That's the biggest complaint of the corporate world, most of the time from the students coming out of the universities that they are very theoretical, they do not know how to behave in the practical world and it takes few years for the students to bring them in the concept of practical and teach them the practical abilities.

Bloom's Taxonomy

I would now like to give you and many of you will be familiar with Bloom's Taxonomy, taxonomy of learning. Bloom's Taxonomy deals with three domains as most academicians perhaps are familiar with the cognitive domain, the psychomotor domain, and the affective domain. The cognitive domain deals with the knowledge levels of higher order thinking or difficulty levels. The skill is about the psychomotor domain deals with the skill levels of the students and the affective domain with the values and the emotional response of the schools. Now, these are common in the layman term, usually dealt with these knowledge, skills, and attitude which should be addressed by the teachers. It's not only about the knowledge, it's also about the skills and the attitude or the behavioral change that we are designed to build a good society. Now, let me just very quickly discuss Bloom's Taxonomy. There are as most of you would know that there are six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy.

The first level is the knowledge level which these with only simply information that is based on the memorization of the knowledge. The second level is the comprehension level, which deals with the logical understanding of the topic by the students. Level three is the application level, which is the ability of the students to apply the knowledge in the real world. And this is where the focus is required especially at the undergraduate level, at the higher level, and even at the undergraduate level also, the learning of the high level is on the analysis level, which is based on the inquiries or research activities, which we give to the students. The fifth level is the synthesis level, or the level of creativity with the students from their critical thinking comes up with some creative thing, which is not even taught in the class but come up with the creative solutions, and the evaluation level is the judgment level, or the validation level, the abilities of the student to differentiate between different things of the phenomena. Like what's the difference between Christianity and Islam? What's the difference between various world leaders and how, how their leadership skills what's the difference between two and what's the difference between the human resource department of university a versus USDP these sorts of things. So, from the student's point of view, the lower cognitive level information and logical information is a lower level, we have to build students to come up to the higher cognitive levels. The knowledge level is simply the memorization of the knowledge whereas the synthesis level or analysis level is the creation of the inquiry level of critical thinking based on the subject which is being taught to the students. Let me show share with you some of the papers which clarify this thing. This is one of the exam papers in one of the school Is basically on chemistry.

Now, if you look at this paper, look at the questions given define radical define and modern periodic law define double triple covalent bond explain gases defined solution define this, define this. These are level one question. And perhaps two of the questions I can see are from level two, which is our comprehension level. So, if we measure this thing, level one question is at 5%. And level two questions are 15% and none from levels three, four, or five. If students get the mark of even 100% in this subject, what does it mean? It means the students have mastered level one cognitive level, and 85% and 15% of level two, but none from the three four, and five, but this phenomenon has not grown with students. So, they think even getting 100% means they are very competent, they are very capable students. Similarly, this is one of the books of medical universities in grace pathology.

Now, if you look at this book, this is the paper of that same book. So, this is general pathology parasitological or microbiology MBBS third professional paper and if you look at the papers, named the parasites, describe briefly the pathogens enumerate organism define herpes hypersensitivity enumerate this and numerate this describe this, this comes to about this, I have gone through the taking the samples and evaluating the type of the papers based on the Bloom's taxonomy. This is 90% of the questions are from level one and 10% from Level Two again the same problem, you see, how come the student who takes 100% Even in this paper can be this is only lower order we can only say that they have acquired the lower cognitive level and not the higher cognitive level which is required by the real world.

This one question is from the level two level of corporate. This is another question from the Applied Psychology paper at the bachelor's level, you can see the questions, and I've seen this is described the structure drawn explain, define the emotion define cognitive define this, these can also even can all be memorized. And these are all 100% of the level one question. Similarly, at the BA level questions again, I've gone I've seen this paper, I've taken this paper from the, from Google of various universities of this region, and I've seen again this problem 90% question from level one and level 10% from level two.

Now, look at some of the questions which are good examples of assessment, for example, trigonometry, this is a picture given on the question itself. Now, you can see when the question explains and gives the practical scenario of trigonometry, the subject, and this is from the application-level question. Similarly, another question is to calculate how high the airplane flying is based on that triangle trigonometry triangle. If this is again, the question from the application level, and these are the pictures from the questionnaire. Again, look at this question, I'm not going into the details, but look at the type of the questions which is giving the practical scenario to the students, how to calculate and how to give the real-life problems, and then using trigonometry to solve the problem. Look at this one, look at this, how high is this mountain based on the trigonometry knowledge that we have learned? Again, this question, again, this question, you can see that they are using practical context to describe the questions.

Look at these, look at these questions. I'm showing you the exam questions, how practically they're using the trigonometry, and look at this poor example, of giving all the questions in a numeric in a descriptive form, without using a practical scenario of the exams, the students have to memorize all these things. This is not a good example of this one.

Teaching social values at ‘Application Level’

Now, this is another very good example. And again, one of the schools in Pakistan for example shows ethics to the students. Look at this box, they have put this box these are what they call it honor. They put these things pencil sharpeners, rebels, things in various places with such deaths. And they're also money, you can see the money is in one of the pockets, the student comes and put the money which is written on the desk, what is the price of the dispenser, they put the money they take back the remaining and they go back this is from Level A grade one students to grade 12 students.

This you can see they are teaching, trying to teach ethics, these are unmonitored nobody is there who is selling, there is no seller of this with this box, in this way, the thing that they are teaching the students the skills and the application of the ethics rather than just giving the lectures of ethics in the classes, they have used this technique to make students honorable, ethically sound and inculcate this thing in the behaviors of the students. For example, they use citizenship. To develop the citizenships, they raise the students raised the flag of the country. This is the code of ethics, printed on the front door of the schools, what the students the core of what are the ethical things, these are the fire brigade things that teach the students that in the society wherever they are in the future, they can.

They’re able to be part of good citizenship and use these things in case of emergencies. This just, for example, they take students to the areas various areas and teach them leadership and love of nature. You can see these, for example, this is the group of students going in there in the mountainous area in the winter, and they are for 15 days or so. They are exposed to nature to build in love for nature. This is for example, in the morning ceremony, they stand and they listen to the national anthem and they practice and they give respect to nationalism, this is in case of one of the disaster earthquakes, the students were sent on weekly trips to the northern areas or to or to teach all the students who are displaced, so that they, they get the responsibility, they understand the responsibility, and their role in the society, they do the walks, for example, the walk for cleanliness, in the city, and the walk for environmental, environmental love, they go to these were walks throughout the city, where there are, where the school is situated, this is called the SPS College, somewhat in the northern area, this is the students have to give Thalassemia center there is a problem of Tennessee and that center in that area. So, the students daily 10 to 15 students, donate their blood to all those thalassemia centers, this is just to build the civics sense in the students, not just through the lectures, but through the practical examples, this is another on a shop, the student is just practicing.

Measuring quality of exams

The knowledge comprehension and application are, for example, in our papers, it's not just sufficient to judge from the paper, but also to assess from various activities and practices, and this for example, in our institute, through this COVID or corona area of one to two year, we went on online, and then we developed a system of performance monitoring, through Power BI power business intelligence program of the Microsoft, what we do is we measure the student learning outcome based on the assessment of the questionnaire of the Bloom's Taxonomy and the first upper left graph you can see the assessment. Based on the blooms level four and five, we assess how much they have learned and similarly student's motivation, outcome motivational outcome or so we call it then the excellence level is all those students giving four and five rating on the excellence level, those students who are giving one or two ratings, today, various topics are below the right side, the right post graph, we understand how many students are giving the poor rating, and then there are slide sharing quality and their sound quality because of the technology assessment. In this way, you can see 83% excellence level, even there, these are the KPIs 5% Students gave a rating of one to two, this is the data of 752 lectures, which we carried out through various times, and so forth.

In this manner, it's an important thing to measure the blooms level, not just the grades, the blues level, we give, we teach students the Bloom's Taxonomy, and then we ask them to rate at the end of the semester, the course, that where they will rate on the one to six levels of the blooms, where will they read this lecture, and this is how they have given this, assessment criteria. This is concerning various courses, each course and each complaint, we note down. We know very well, which course and which student is giving which type of complaint, so, that we can also check the profile of the student, and also go with the interview with the student test well, these are again the same three or four slides of the Power BI giving the same rating.

Educational goals are basically the competitive edge of nations is not based on the learning outcome of level one, we have to build or increase the cognitive levels in our teaching methodologies, where comprehension application analysis and synthesis level is addressed in our teaching and our assessment system. Those nations who have dealt with this area and they deal with these subjects at the higher cognitive level are growing very fast and those who are only dealing with the knowledge level those institutions, those colleges, those students, basically, they do not make fully they do not achieve the goals with they are supposed to get the goals of building The students level.

Teacher's abilities

Now one of the problems with this is the teacher's abilities, we try to make the goal which is the higher cognitive goal, for example, the application and analysis. Now the question is, is the teacher qualified enough competent enough to teach the skill or only theoretical in teaching the skill, the theoretical knowledge? So, if we want if we set our goals for the students just to achieve level three or four from Bloom's Taxonomy, we have to make sure that the teacher also has the necessary skills, whether it is a leadership course, whether it is a mathematics course, whether it is a chemistry course, or the Management Sciences, a teacher who has not worked through in the industry, how can that teacher teach the skills of the corporate world of leadership when the teacher has not even seen the corporate world from the practical scenario, I've not worked into it, and not even successfully done the leadership in those aspects.

The final thing very briefly, which I'll discuss is the concept of beings, which is constructive alignment. There are three things without going into the technical details of these things, the students learning outcomes should be based on basically one of the taxonomy that I have used today Bloom's Taxonomy. However, there are other taxonomies students learning outcomes must be very clearly defined the level of cognitive level in each subject or each chapter that we are teaching in a class, then the teaching method should be according to the requirement of the learning outcome. If the learning outcome requires level three or level four, for example, application level, when we are teaching ethics, then we have to make sure that we taught the students at the application level. And the third one is assessment. The assessment should be based on the student learning outcome most of the time. So the screen learning outcomes are basically what the student has to learn.

The teaching method is engagement, engaging students to achieve the student learning outcome, and the assessment should be accordingly correctly built and made, how well the student says to keep the SLO. Now the question is, are these aligned how to align and align course, that means we have developed SL lows, we evaluate review and regularly revised SLOs. We add that development of the syllabus should be based on the SLO.

Secondly, we have to make lesson plans to achieve that SLO we have to regularly have an infrastructure of evaluation and review and regularly revise the lesson plans and curriculum to make sure that students are achieving the SLOs and the teachers have to learn the new techniques of teaching based on the requirement of SLOs. And the final is the assessment method, which is the weakest point usually in our universities is the content validity and reliability, the exam management, and the post-exam feedback, they should make sure that if level three is taught, then the exam is also of the level three, which I have discussed earlier in this section.

Putting things together in the cognitive domain, the affective domain, and psychomotor, which are the psychomotor and affective domains that not touched upon today, but these three domains provide a framework for taxonomy of the learning outcomes, we have to make our learning outcomes, we have to make sure our teaching activities are based on these or other similar taxonomies then we have to make sure that the citizenship is effectively built into the character of the students and also the ethics are built into the character of the students. If these are effectively addressed, then, of course, we know we won't see so many wars going on around the world, or so many demonstrations going on. Many problems with the corporate world going on the world and slowly and gradually it will improve. There are various aspects of these SLOs like program educational objects, development of programs, outcomes, course outcomes, and chapter outcomes are topic level, which we have to deal and each teacher has to deal with these things. Program educational objectives are what we measure after two to four years of graduation and program outcomes are measured during their studies or immediately after the completion of these studies.

When we are making the curriculum we have to develop, we have to make sure that we have developed the outcomes based on if we are using Bloom's Taxonomy, then we have to make sure that each subject and the topic of the capture of each subject, very we are very clear in deciding the learning outcome level at the beginning of the development of basically the curriculum. So, in the end, the question is, have we developed the right SLOs for our students for the subjects that we are teaching heavy develop the right curriculum and the methodologies of teaching also, and the contents of our subject matter correctly to achieve the required SLOs which are based on which are taken from the feedback of the corporate world and the national priorities.

The third one is, have you developed the right teaching and exam methods to achieve measure basically, to measure and to achieve the right SLOs or through learning outcomes? The QA strategies for these include setting and enhancing the learning goals, which should be based on the priority of, for example, there should be a priority goal by the vice-chancellors and the deans. Using Bloom's Taxonomy is a good framework, which we can use for delivering and measuring the quality of the student's outcomes.

The self-assessment reports the grades, and that documentation should not just be the goal itself. But they should be used to achieve the goals, the Dean should take the leading role for the quality assurance of learning outcomes, while Quality Enhancement sells in some of the universities that we have seen. They have developed this infrastructure, or the QA department should develop frameworks in their universities for improving the learning outcomes. All teachers should go through Bloom's Taxonomy framework or a similar one, for enhancing the learning levels of their classes, they should be accountable for the outcomes of the classes for which they are teaching. They are not, they're not accountable, just for the output of the knowledge that they have covered in the courses. It's good to measure the blooms levels, students should be engaged by improving their learning skills by teaching them metacognition, so students should also be engaged in this process, which is a joint process of teacher and students themselves.

Students should be given sufficient knowledge in metacognition so that they understand Bloom's Taxonomy, and they can set their goals correctly as well when they are going through the courses. And their goal is not usually the grades, but the learning outcome, which they can learn. So, for students’ quality of their learning is the quality of their future. And for teachers and institutions, the quality of their teaching is the quality of our next generation. There is a common thought that if we continue to do what we were doing, we will continue to get what we were getting. We require. And in our institution, we require the intention, the interest, the initiatives, the efforts, determination and sincerity, and the learning behavior of the changes that we are designing for improving our educational institutions. And where organizations like WHERS and others who are involved in the assessment and giving the rating of the institutions are very important an aspect that they are coming for one of the good stakeholders who can support the institution by focusing more on the learning outcome, as many of them are doing.

With this, I ended up my talk of today, I'm grateful to all the organizers for allowing me to present this. My thoughts on these subjects. I wish you all great success. And if anybody needs any further feedback, they can write to me via email. One of my courses is also available on udemy.com, which is on the same topic, outcome-based education and academic quality assurance. Thank you very much, and best of luck.
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